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Acute Liver FailureHealth Professionals Blog

Genetic aetiologies of acute liver failure

Title: Genetic aetiologies of acute liver failure

Source: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 2024, Mar 18. [E-publication]

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Date of publication: March 2024

Publication type: Review article

Abstract: Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare, rapidly evolving, clinical syndrome with devastating consequences where definitive treatment is by emergency liver transplantation. Establishing a diagnosis can be challenging and, historically, the cause of ALF was unidentified in up to half of children. However, recent technological and clinical advances in genomic medicine have led to an increasing proportion being diagnosed with monogenic aetiologies of ALF. The conditions encountered include a diverse group of inherited metabolic disorders each with prognostic and treatment implications. Often these disorders are clinically indistinguishable and may even mimic disorders of immune regulation or red cell disorders. Rapid genomic sequencing for children with ALF is, therefore, a key component in the diagnostic work up today. This review focuses on the monogenic aetiologies of ALF.

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