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Paediatric hepatocellular adenomas: lessons from a systematic review of relevant literature

Title: Paediatric hepatocellular adenomas: lessons from a systematic review of relevant literature

Source: JHEP Reports 2024, 6 (6): 101078

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Date of publication: March 2024

Publication type: Review article

Abstract: Hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) are rare benign liver tumours. Predisposing factors and complication rates appear to differ among children and adults. In the present study, we aimed to systematically characterise paediatric HCAs and determine their course, complications, and management. Medical history, clinical symptoms, imaging, histopathology, and genetics of children with HCAs were collected through a systematic and comprehensive review of the published literature. A total of 316 children with HCAs were included in the present study. HCAs were diagnosed primarily in girls (59.3%) and at a mean age of 11.5 (range 0-17.7) years. The majority (83.6%) of HCAs occurred in children with predisposing diseases, of which glycogen storage disease was the most common, followed by portosystemic shunts and MODY3 (maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3). Each of these diseases leads to a well-defined HCA molecular pattern. A significant number of HCAs either bled (24.7%) or transformed (14.8%) over time. HCA transformation was significantly more frequent in children with portosystemic shunts and in β-catenin-mutated HCAs, while haemorrhages were more frequent in children exposed to hormones and those with larger lesions. Management was primarily guided by any predisposing conditions and the number of lesions. Therefore, vascular shunts were closed when possible, while complicated lesions were resected. Liver transplantation has made it possible to treat adenomatosis, as well as any underlying diseases. Progress in understanding genetic and/or malformative contributions, which appear to be significant in paediatric HCAs, have provided insights into tumour pathogenesis and will further guide patient surveillance and management.

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