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Current endovascular management of arterial complications after pediatric liver transplantation in a tertiary center

Title: Current endovascular management of arterial complications after pediatric liver transplantation in a tertiary center

Source: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology 2023, Oct 13. [E-publication]

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Date of publication: October 2023

Publication type: Article

Abstract: Purpose: Pediatric liver transplant surgery is burdened by arterial complications whose endovascular treatment is not standardized. We report the outcomes of a cohort of pediatric recipients with hepatic artery complications treated by endoluminal procedures.

Materials and methods: From December 2019 to December 2022, consecutive transplanted pediatric patients who underwent endovascular treatment of hepatic artery complications were reviewed. The analysis included: type of complication (occlusion, stenosis, pseudoaneurysm); onset (acute = < 15 days, subacute = 15-90 days, late = > 90 days); endovascular technique (angioplasty, stenting); complications and outcomes. Technical success was defined as the opacification of the hepatic artery at the final angiogram with < 50% residual stenosis and no pseudoaneurysms. Clinical success was defined by graft’s and patient’s survival.

Results: Seventeen patients (8 males; median age 33 months, IQR 9-103) underwent 21 hepatic arteriography procedures for predominantly acute or subacute occlusions (n = 7) or stenosis (n = 11) with concurrent pseudoaneurysms (n = 4). Primary and secondary technical success was achieved in 13/18 and 3/3 procedures, respectively, with overall technical success of 76%. Angioplasty alone was successful in 5/21 procedures; stent-retriever thrombectomy was performed in one occlusion with thrombosis; stenting was required in 9/17 (53%) patients. Clinical success was obtained in 14/17 (82%) patients with hepatic artery patency after a median of 367 days (IQR 114.5-500). Clinical failure occurred in 3 permanent occlusions, with 2 deaths and 1 re-transplantation. Procedure-related complications included minor events in 3/17 (18%) patients and 1/17 (6%) death.

Conclusion: In liver transplanted children with hepatic artery complications, endovascular treatment may provide clinical success, with stenting often required in acute and subacute conditions.

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